Ambient Temperature : The temperature of the surrounding medium such as the atmosphere. Grade and quality specifications for petroleum products are determined by ASTM test methods. Barrel : The standard unit of liquid volume in the petroleum industry. It is equal to 42 U. Bunker s: Fuel for a vessel. The type will vary depending upon the propulsion mode of the vessel. Steamships will use a heavy fuel oil, diesels use a range of fuels from heavy to light, and gas turbines generally use kerosene.
Cargo Pump : Pump used on tankers for discharging cargo and loading or discharging ballast.Industries in embakasi
Located, at the bottom of the pump room, these pumps are usually of the common duplex type, or turbine type of which the centrifugal is the most common. Closed Gauging System : A method of obtaining measurements of the tank contents without opening the tank.Evocation 5e
This type of gauging is done extensively on vessels with inert gas systems. Density : Density is the term meaning the mass of a unit of volume. Its numerical expression varies with the units selected. Dip : A term used to designate either the depth of liquid in a storage tank or the taking of the measurements of such liquid level. See Gauging. Floating Roof Correction : The correction made to offset the effect of the displacement of the floating roof, when no correction has been built into the tank capacity table.
Free Water FW : The water present in a container that is not in suspension in the contained liquid oil. Inert Gas IG : A gas used by marine tank vessels to displace air in cargo tanks to reduce oxygen content to 8 percent or less by volume and thus reduce possibility of fire or explosion.
The inert gas used is usually nitrogen, carbon dioxide or a mixture of gases such as flue gas. Innage : The amount of space within a tank that is occupied by oil. Innages are sometimes called soundings or body gauges. Load on Top LOT : defined as both a procedure and a practice. Procedure: Load on top is the shipboard procedure of collecting the settling water and oil mixtures, resulting from ballasting and tank cleaning operations usually in a special slop tank or tanksand subsequently loading cargo on top of the slops and pumping the resultant mixture ashore at the discharge port.
Practice: Load on top is the act of commingling onboard quantity with cargo being loaded.The compressibility factor Zalso known as the compression factor or the gas deviation factoris a correction factor which describes the deviation of a real gas from ideal gas behaviour. It is simply defined as the ratio of the molar volume of a gas to the molar volume of an ideal gas at the same temperature and pressure.
It is a useful thermodynamic property for modifying the ideal gas law to account for the real gas behaviour. Compressibility factor values are usually obtained by calculation from equations of state EOSsuch as the virial equation which take compound-specific empirical constants as input.
For a gas that is a mixture of two or more pure gases air or natural gas, for examplethe gas composition must be known before compressibility can be calculated. The compressibility factor should not be confused with the compressibility also known as coefficient of compressibility or isothermal compressibility of a material which is the measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid in response to a pressure change.
In statistical mechanics the description is:. In many real world applications requirements for accuracy demand that deviations from ideal gas behaviour, i.
At high pressures molecules are colliding more often. The compressibility factor is linked to the fugacity by the relation. The principle of corresponding states expresses the generalization that the properties of a gas which are dependent on intermolecular forces are related to the critical properties of the gas in a universal way.
That provides a most important basis for developing correlations of molecular properties.Crowdsignal poll hack
Together they define the critical point of a fluid above which distinct liquid and gas phases of a given fluid do not exist. The pressure-volume-temperature PVT data for real gases varies from one pure gas to another. However, when the compressibility factors of various single-component gases are graphed versus pressure along with temperature isotherms many of the graphs exhibit similar isotherm shapes.
Figure 2 is an example of a generalized compressibility factor graph derived from hundreds of experimental PVT data points of 10 pure gases, namely methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, n-butane, i-pentane, n-hexane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and steam. There are more detailed generalized compressibility factor graphs based on as many as 25 or more different pure gases, such as the Nelson-Obert graphs. The generalized compressibility factor graphs may be considerably in error for strongly polar gases which are gases for which the centers of positive and negative charge do not coincide.
The quantum gases hydrogen, helium, and neon do not conform to the corresponding-states behavior and the reduced pressure and temperature for those three gases should be redefined in the following manner to improve the accuracy of predicting their compressibility factors when using the generalized graphs:. In order to read a compressibility chart, the reduced pressure and temperature must be known. If either the reduced pressure or temperature is unknown, the reduced specific volume must be found.
Unlike the reduced pressure and temperature, the reduced specific volume is not found by using the critical volume. The reduced specific volume is defined by. Once two of the three reduced properties are found, the compressibility chart can be used.
In a compressibility chart, reduced pressure is on the x-axis and Z is on the y-axis.Menu Search. What does VCF stand for?
Acronym Attic. Samples in periodicals archive: multiplied by the appropiate volume correction factorin order for the Calibration Figure to be valid. Table 54B Volume Correction to 15 C. Get this from a library! I mean does any one know the FM or table wich stores volume correction factor?
Volume correction factor formula search results Additional suggestions for Volume correction factor formula by our robot Volume correction factor calculator search results Additional suggestions for Volume correction factor calculator by our robot Obtain temperature CTLpressure Chapter Showing 1 result in All Products.
Sort by: View: Page 1 of 1. View as: Grid List Manual of Heavy fuel oil: Bunker C; Volume Correction Factor at this; The low cost of heavy fuel oils often means a lack of instrumentation and in turn this means It is part of the product Bulk Title: lpg volume correction factor table - Bing. Posts about volume correction factor written by ronmooring; Oilcalcs for iPhone iOS 7 version has been approved by Apple and is now available for download here.
A message on the bottom of the screen informs. Posts about volume correction factor written by ronmooring; The graphing utility lets the user choose whether to view either the Walther graph or the V50 graph This application calculates volume correction factors and related values used in custody transfer and accounting operations. Volume correction factor VCF is a tool chemists often use in their calculations to correct a random volume of gas in their equations to a standard volume.
Petroleum measurement tables : volume correction factors.Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content.
More information. The oil formation volume factor FVF relates the volume of oil at stock-tank conditions to the volume of oil at elevated pressure and temperature in the reservoir. Values typically range from approximately 1. Tables 1 and 2                                   summarize thirty correlations for saturated crude oil systems that have been identified in the literature.
For saturated systems, gas is liberated as pressure is reduced below the bubblepoint. This results in a corresponding shrinkage in oil volume, as shown for all of the methods in Fig. The rather large number of correlations preclude the identification of individual methods. The results show a relatively narrow range of oil FVF values determined by all of the correlation methods. Increases in temperature, crude oil gravity, and gas gravity provide a small increase in FVF.
Recent studies     provide statistical analyses for bubblepoint oil FVF correlations and provide recommendations based on their findings; however, none of these references examines the full set of correlations. Al-Shammasi  compiled a databank of 1, data points from the literature that was combined with data points from the GeoMark Research database  to yield a total of 1, data points.
These data were used to rank the accuracy of the oil FVF correlations. The ranges and distribution of these data can be found in Table 3 and Fig. Table 4 summarizes correlation performance.
The results are sorted by absolute average relative error, which provides a means to rank the methods. The data were further grouped to examine the impact of crude oil gravity and GOR on consistency of the correlations. Several methods use multiple equations valid for specified ranges of crude oil gravity. Discontinuities, which are summarized in Fig. FVF should increase with increasing solution gas gravity. Correlations listed in Figs. Use this section to list papers in OnePetro that a reader who wants to learn more should definitely read.
Use this section to provide links to relevant material on websites other than PetroWiki and OnePetro. Gas formation volume factor and density. Jump to: navigationsearch. Categories : Pages with reference errors 5. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in. Namespaces Read Discussion.Traffic monitoring is performed to collect data that describes the use and performance of the roadway system.Sine wave fit
This chapter describes the types of data that should be collected, the technologies that are currently available for collecting those data, how agencies should examine those technologies for meeting their traffic monitoring needs, and the characteristics of traffic data that should be incorporated into the design of a strong and effective traffic monitoring program. Background information on the science and concepts used in traffic monitoring is discussed to guide the States in developing a traffic monitoring program that not only meets their needs, but also supports the need for traffic data at the national and local levels.
The purpose of this section is to frame the basic definitions of terms for the remainder of the TMGand it is supplemented with a more comprehensive Glossary of Terms in Appendix A. There are many different terms used in the TMG to discuss the development and implementation of a traffic monitoring program.
It is recognized that some of these terms are used in different manners by the various States. For the purposes of the TMGthe terms will be used as described below. The terms are organized in the following categories: methods, equipment, location, count types and programs, factors and data products.
Automatic — Refers to the collection of traffic data with automatic equipment designed to continuously record the distribution and variation of traffic flow in discrete time periods e. Automatic methods may include both permanent and portable counters. Manual —Refers to visually observing number, classification, vehicle occupancy, turning movement counts, or direction of traffic.
Methods include using tally sheets or electronic counting boards. These methods are not described extensively in this version of the TMG. Traffic Counter — Any device that collects vehicular characteristics data such as volume, classification, speed, weight. The ATR may be used to collect data continuously at a permanent site or at any location for shorter periods.
Continuous Count Station CCS — permanent counting site provides 24 hours a day and 7 days a week of data for either all days of the year or at least for a seasonal collection. For example, some States refer to an ATR as a site where traffic is collected continuously. However, according to the strict definition an ATR is simply an automated traffic recorder.
To further describe the type of count, one should indicate whether the count is continuous or short duration.
API Gravity Temperature Correction Online Calculator
Weigh-In-Motion WIM — The process of measuring the dynamic tire forces of a moving vehicle and estimating the corresponding tire loads of the static vehicle. A WIM detector is a device that measures these loads and forces. Traffic counts are recorded at a specific point on the roadway. For example, a count location is often assigned to a segment of road. The definition of a segment varies by State; here it refers to a section of roadway defined by the State.
Since collecting traffic data is not feasible on every possible point within a segment, traffic data collected and representing a point on a segment is extrapolated to represent the entire segment.
Gas Measurement from Uncorrected Flow Rate to Volume Correction
The extrapolation of point data to the line segments is known as the traffic data and linear referencing system LRS integration process.
Count — Refers to how the data is collected to measure and record traffic characteristics such as vehicle volume, classification by axle or lengthspeed, weight, lane occupancy or a combination of these characteristics. These characteristics are defined in more detail in other parts of the TMG.
There are two primary categories of traffic count programs: continuous and short duration. They are described in detail below. It is recording the data 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The goal of a continuous count site is to capture data for days of the year. On occasion due to equipment failure, construction, special event detours, etc.A correction factor is any mathematical adjustment made to a calculation to account for deviations in either the sample or the method of measurement.
Below are some examples of real world correction factors. Insulin dependent diabetics need to regulate the amount of subcutaneous insulin they inject per day based on their current blood sugar levels. A rule of thumb, or correction factor, used is the rule for Humalog or Novolog insulin types.
Divide by the dose of insulin per day to determine the total point drop of blood sugar per unit of insulin. An everyday application of the correction factor applies to high altitude cooking. While there isn't an easy formula, Better Homes and Gardens indicates correcting cooking temperatures by adding 15 to 25 degrees Fahrenheit.
When changing the tires on your car from the original factory tire to an aftermarket tire of different dimensions, the reading on your speedometer may be false. It is necessary to determine the correction factor or variance in order to get you actual speed. See Reference 4 for an online calculator. This article was written by the It Still Works team, copy edited and fact checked through a multi-point auditing system, in efforts to ensure our readers only receive the best information.
To submit your questions or ideas, or to simply learn more about It Still Works, contact us. What Is Correction Factor? Speedometer Correction Factor When changing the tires on your car from the original factory tire to an aftermarket tire of different dimensions, the reading on your speedometer may be false. About the Author This article was written by the It Still Works team, copy edited and fact checked through a multi-point auditing system, in efforts to ensure our readers only receive the best information.
Photo Credits keypad image by vashistha pathak from Fotolia.In the petroleum industryallocation refers to practices of breaking down measures of quantities of extracted hydrocarbons across various contributing sources. Contributing sources in this context are typically producing petroleum wells delivering flows of petroleum or flows of natural gas to a commingled flow or storage. The terms hydrocarbon accounting and allocation are sometimes used interchangeably. In this way, hydrocarbon accounting also covers inventory controlmaterial balance, and practices to trace ownership of hydrocarbons being transported in a transportation systeme.
In an allocation problem, contributing sources are more widely natural gas streams, fluid flows or multiphase flows derived from formations or zones in a well, from wells, and from fieldsunitised production entities or production facilities. In hydrocarbon accounting, quantities of extracted hydrocarbon can be further split by ownership, by "cost oil" or "profit oil" categories, and broken down to individual composition fraction types. Such components may be alkane hydrocarbons, boiling point fractions,  and mole weight fractions.
The term allocate  is being used in the sense to denote distributing according to a plan, but the etymology may also be linked to 'earmark'. In the context of hydrocarbon accounting, an oil field is an area developed for exploration of hydrocarbons from one or more reservoirs  in the underground.
Sometimes one well extracts hydrocarbons from more than one geologic formation or reservoir, hence it may be useful to divide the oil field and its well streams by formations or layers. More than one oil field may share infrastructure like oil processing units and pipelines. The field activities are regulated by a jurisdiction of a state and a contract of the licence.
The contract is a business arrangement for exploration of the oil field between the licensor, the mineral rights owner, onshore in United States often the land owner, elsewhere often the state possesses the ownership of mineral rights including petroleum reservoirs [ citation needed ] and a licensee to share investment costs, operational costs, and income from the oil field.
In case of a production sharing agreementPSA, the licensee will take all development costs and have this capital recovered by "cost oil".
When more than one company is involved, the term "group ownership members" is used, and the business arrangement for petroleum extraction specifies the equity of cost and income for each member company. Where a petroleum concessionary licence system is in use rather than contractual type of petroleum fiscal regimeownership of extracted hydrocarbons are shared according to fixed equities of each member company.
Field allocation or platform allocation denotes allocation cases where contribution sources are more than one production field or more than one offshore platform, making a commingled flow into a pipeline. Well allocation is a term used in the case where the contribution sources are production petroleum wells, or any type of injection well.
Component allocation : while the term product allocation is used to allocate the primary product groups like oil, gas or condensate ingredients phase fractions to a contributing well for instance,  component allocation breaks down and allocate individual alkane hydrocarbons like methane and ethaneto 3 isomers pentanes in a natural gas stream.
Components of crude oil streams to be allocated may be split up by boiling point fractions. Other combinatorics on the allocation term include production allocation hydrocarbon allocation pipeline allocation and back allocation. Allocation at exports decide exactly what quantities each partner of the contract is paid for.
Allocation is an ongoing process based on flow or volume measurementsand gives the distribution of contributing sources, often with a final calculation per day, which in turn provides the basis for a daily production report in the case of a field that produces hydrocarbons.
Moreover, the allocation process may be designed to split up a flow of multiple products of the individual ingredients or phase fractions, for example when associated gas and water are supplied with a crude oil flow,  and each fraction within the commingled flow or storage is allocated between the contributors and its ownership. A traditional allocation practice will execute quantity calculations for crude oilnatural-gas condensate and produced water based on measured results from periodic, time-limited well tests.
Natural gas flows from pure gas wells are usually measured continuously at or near the individual wellheads.
Allocation (oil and gas)
Within the wider scope of hydrocarbon accounting; all measurements and parameters used for calculations are being deposited in a data storage, results of calculations along with methods used in calculations, are stored in a manner that is accepted by the internal and external audit. Stored results can be further utilised to optimise the reservoir performance of a producing field, possibly optimising the utilisation in case of a transportation system.Volume correction of Van der waal
The hydrocarbon accounting process is emphasizing the tracking of all hydrocarbons through flows until a sale to a customer has occurred or hydrocarbons are disposed for including all fluid discharges, vents and flaring of gasconsumption of gas for power production at the facility, and quantities of evaporation from oil storages.
Similarly, measurements of injected flow of water and gas into the reservoir through injection wells are being part of hydrocarbon accounting. Allocation is commercial rooted in the need to distribute the costs, revenues and taxes among multiple players collaborating on field development and production of oil and gas.
There are various incentives for collaboration, one is risk and cost sharing, the practice by issuing licenses for exploration and production to a partnership of oil companies. Another is the aim of improving production efficiency, by extracting from multiple land properties or multiple oil fields by shared arrangement for production, also called unitisation.
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